◎ 句子 Sentence

● 基本句型

1. 
S  + 
V        
  主詞   完全不及物動詞        
   Dogs bark.
 Jack smiled.
2. S + V  + 
SC    
  主詞   不完全不及物動詞   主詞補語    
   Reading is a pleasure.
 The movie was good.
 I will make (=become) a handsome person.
 Practice make (=become) perfect. 熟能生巧。
3. S + V  + O    
  主詞   完全及物動詞   受詞    
   He collects stamps.
 He reads the books.
 Clothes make the man. 人要衣裝,佛要金裝。
4. S + V  + O
OC
  主詞   不完全及物動詞   受詞   受詞補語
   The teachers consider my brother a genius.
 They appointed him manager.
 It made me very happy.
5. S + V  + IO + DO
  主詞   授與動詞   間接受詞   直接受詞
   Jim bought Mary a present.
 The tailor made John a suit.
 He made me a new suit.

 

● 依功能分類 Classified by Use

1. 
敘述句 Declarative Sentence
   He is an early riser.
 I did not sleep well last night.
   There (Here) + 動詞 + 主詞 (名詞).
   There is no school today.
 Here is a letter for you.
 Here comes the bus.
   There (Here) + 主詞 (代名詞) + 動詞
   Here you are.
 Here it comes.
2.
疑問句 Interrogative Sentence
  (1) 不帶疑問詞的一般問句 (說話中句末用楊調)
   Are you fond of travelling?
 Can you swim?
  (2) 代有疑問詞的一般問句
   What are you looking for?
 Who told you that?
 When is the next train for Taipei?
  (3) 選擇疑問句
   Is straw light or heavy?
  (4) 修辭疑問句
 肯定疑問句 = 否定敘述句;否定疑問句 = 肯定敘述句
   What is the use of worrying about such a thing?
 = It is no use worrying about such a thing.
 Who doesn't desire happiness?
 = Everyone desires happiness.
 Doesn't he understand English?
 = I think he understands English.
 Isn't he foolish?
 = How foolish he is !
  (5) 附加問句 Attached Question
   It is a nice day, isn't it?
   敘述句後面的附加問句
   She is a typist, isn't she (is she not)?
 She isn't a typist, is she?
 He can swim, can't he?
 He can't swim, can he?
 She learns French, doesn't she?
 John went home, didn't he?
 They know me, don't they?
 He usually has apple pie for dessert, doesn't he?
 You had a letter from home, didn't you?
 You have a cold bath every morning, don't you?
 Mary is a teacher, isn't she?
 Mary was a teacher, wasn't she?
 Mary will be a teacher, won't she?
 Being idle is the cause of his failure, isn't it?
   祈使句後面的附加問句
   Let me have a look, will you?
 Have another cigarette, won't you?
 Don't open the window, will you?
 Don't touch him, will you?
 Come down quickly, can't you?
 Be quiet, can't you?
 Let's start early, shall we?
 Let's not go fishing, all right?
 Let's go to the movies, shall you?
 Let us go to the movies, will you?
   複句的附加問句
   John thinks the war is ending, doesn't he?
 Mary said that John thinks the war is ending, didn't she?
 I suppose the are is ending, isn't it?
 I heard say that he was very honest, wasn't he?
 I believe that he is the best student, isn't he?
 I believe that he was the best student, didn't I?
 We don't believe that he is the best student, is he?
3.
祈使句 Imperative Sentence
   Be quiet!
 Please listen to me.
4.
感嘆句 Exclamatory Sentence
  (1) How + 形容詞或副詞 + 主詞 + 動詞 !
   How beautiful the girl is !
 Hoe beautifully the girl dances !
  (2) How + 形容詞 + a(n) + 單數名詞 + 主詞 + 動詞 !
   How beautiful a flower it is !
  (3) What + a(n) + (形容詞) + 單數名詞 + 主詞 + 動詞 !
   What a bright daughter you have !
  (4) What + 形容詞 + 複數名詞 + 主詞 + 動詞 !
   What large eyes she has !
5.
祈願句 Optative Sentence
  (1) 主詞 + 原形動詞 ... !
   God bless you !
  (2) May + 主詞 + 原形動詞 !
   May you succeed !

 

● 依結構分類 Classified by Structure

1. 
單句 Simple Sentence
   The changes in the last two centuries are amazing.
 The boy and his sister study and play together.
2.
合句 Compund Sentence
   Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them. 愚者設筵,智者赴筵。
 That student failed, for he was very ill this year.
 A wise student studies his lessons;an unwise one wastes his time.
3.
複句 Complex Sentence

(1) 主要子句 + 名詞子句
   He found what he had been looking for.

(2) 主要子句 + 形容詞子句
   The place where we stopped for the night had bedbugs.

(3) 主要子句 + 副詞子句
   She has been happy since she got married.
4.
複合句 Compound-complex Sentence

(1) 複句 + 單句
   Say you are sorry, and I'll forgive you.

(2) 複句 + 複句
   I knew that John was ill, but I didn't know that he suffered from scurvy.
 You may ask him to help if you like, but I think you had better do it yourself.

 

● 句子的成分 The Elements of the Sentence

1. 主要成分 Essential Elements

  (1) 主詞 Subject

  (2) 動詞 Verb

  (3) 受詞 Object

  (4) 補語 Complement

2. 附屬成分 Dependent Elements

  (1) 修飾語 Modifier

  (2) 連結詞 Connective

3. 獨立成分  Independent Elements

 

◎ 片語 Phrase

● 按結構分 classified by Structure

(1) 名詞片語

(2) 動詞片語

(3) 不定詞片語

(4) 分詞片語

(5) 動名詞片語

(6) 介詞片語

● 按功能分 Classified by Use

(1) 名詞片語

(2) 代名詞片語

(3) 形容詞片語

(4) 動詞片語

(5) 副詞片語

(6) 介詞片語

(7) 片語連接詞

(8) 感歎詞片語

◎ 子句 Clause

● 名詞子句 Noun Clause

● 形容詞子句 Adjective Clause

● 副詞子句 Adverbial Clause

 

◎ 大寫 Capitalization

 

◎ 標點 Punctuation

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tsuozoe

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